Men's Health Facts

prostate cancer

Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that forms in one of the testicles and is the most common cancer in younger men aged between 15 and 34 years in Ireland.

Every year about 172 men are diagnosed with this cancer however the survival rate for testicular cancer has increased dramatically in recent years to over 95% due to increased awareness and better treatment options. 91.5% of all cases of testicular cancer are in men aged under 50 years of age.

Treatment does not normally affect a man’s erectile function or masculinity, making testicular cancer one of the most curable of all internal cancers if diagnosed early.


  • A lump or bump on either testicle
  • Enlargement or swelling of the scrotum
  • Dull ache or pain felt in the groin, abdomen or back
  • Symptoms often present in only one testicle

Prevention Tips

There’s no way to prevent testicular cancer and no one knows for sure what causes it. Carrying out a regular self-check or self-examination of your testicles following a shower or bath is the best way identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage.

If you experience any of these symptoms it doesn’t mean you have Testicular cancer but you should still pay a visit to your GP.

Click here for a Guide to Self-Check.

prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a slow growing, malignant cancer that develops in the walnut-sized prostate gland.
The chance of developing Prostate cancer increases with age and with a family history. There are 3,267 new cases diagnosed annually. It is the top most common invasive cancer diagnosed in men.


  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • Difficulty in, or increased frequency of urinating
  • Blood in the urine or semen.

Risk factors

There’s no proven Prostate cancer prevention strategy. But you may reduce your risk of Prostate cancer by making healthy choices including:

  • Eating a healthy low fat diet with lots of fruit and veg and reduce your red or processed meat intake.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit yourself to no more than a drink or two each day.
  • Maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly as men with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher are considered obese. Being obese increases your risk of cancer including prostate cancer.
  • Talk to your doctor about your risks or any concerns you might have.

If you experience any of these symptoms, don’t panic! They may be a sign that you have something other than Prostate cancer but it’s important to get checked out by your GP.

prostate cancer

Bowel Cancer

Bowel cancer (also known as Colo-rectal cancer) is the second most common invasive cancer in men, with one in ten men likely to be diagnosed with the disease by age 85. 2,436 new cases of Colo-rectal/Bowel cancer are diagnosed in Ireland annually. 1,405 of these are in men compared to 1,031 in women.


    • Blood in the motion or abdominal bloating or cramping
    • A recent and persistent change in bowel habit with diarrhoea, constipation or the feeling of incomplete emptying or thin bowel movements
    • Tiredness
    • Weight loss
    • Unexplained anaemia.

Risk Factors

      • Age
      • Inherited genetic risk
      • Inflammatory bowel disease
      • Obesity or a poor diet lacking in fruit and veg
      • Smoking

Prevention Tips

    • Don’t smoke
    • Maintain a healthy body weight
    • Be physically active
    • Have a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.
prostate cancer

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer can be grouped into two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.

Non-small cell

Non-small cell lung cancer affects the cells that line the tubes into the lungs (main bronchi) and smaller airways.

Small cell

Small cell lung cancer tends to start in the middle of the lungs and is usually not found before the cancer has spread to the blood stream.


  • Wheezing
  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Blood may be brought up when coughing
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite.

Risk Factors

  • Smoking makes up around 90% of lung cancer cases
  • Occupational exposure to chemicals such as asbestos, radon, hydrocarbon
  • Occurs most often in people over the age of 50
  • Passive smoking can be a contributing factor.

Prevention Tips

  • Not smoking
  • Avoiding breathing other people’s cigarette smoke
  • Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals that can be inhaled.
prostate cancer

Skin Cancer or Melanoma

Skin cancer is the most common cancer in Ireland with an average of over 9,000 new cases being diagnosed every year. It is expected that these numbers will rise in the future so the key is to reduce your risks and see your GP if you are worried about anything.


  • A small lump on your skin
  • A lump or spot that is tender to touch or itchy
  • An ulcer that isn’t healing
  • A flat red spot or firm red lump on your skin

Risk Factors

If you spend a lot of time working outdoors or spending time in the sun you are at a greater risk of skin cancer, including melamona.

  • Exposure to the sun or a history of sunburn
  • Moles – most moles will never cause any problems but a person who has moles is more likely to develop melanoma
  • Skin that freckles, reddens or burns easily in the sun
  • Exposure to Ultraviolet (UV) rays from indoor tanning

Prevention Tips

Most people like to get a little sun but we all need to be smart that we are not risking out health. Here are 3 simple rules

  • The sun rays are strongest between 10am and 4pm to that’s when you need to seek the shade
  • Don’t burn yourself in the sun, even a single sunburn increases your risk of melanoma and five or more sunburns doubles your lifetime risk
  • Cover up, wear UV blocking sunglasses and use sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher when in the sun.At least one third of all cancers are preventable and if you are concerned about cancer prevention there are some simple lifestyle changes that can make a big difference.
  • Don’t smoke or use tobacco – tobacco causes an estimated 22% of cancer deaths worldwide every year
  • Eat a healthy diet with plenty of fruit and veg and reduce your red meat intake
  • If you like a drink, enjoy in moderation
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle and get regular exercise